Bone marrow cytology showing many tumour cells of breast cancer
<p>Bone marrow cytology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) of a patient with breast cancer and bone metastases.</p>
Bone marrow cytology showing predominantly ringed sideroblasts
<p>This bone marrow cytology of a patient with MDS shows predominantly ringed sideroblasts in the Prussian Blue stain (iron stain). They are precursors of red blood cells, in which, due to a defect in iron utilisation, the iron is deposited in a ring-shaped distribution around the nucleus. Exact diagnosis: refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ringed sideroblasts (RCMD-RS).</p>
Bone marrow histology of a patient with breast cancer
<p>Bone marrow histology (immunohistochemistry with alkaline phosphatase reaction) of a patient with breast cancer: Carcinoma cells derive from epithelial cells that express cytokeratins in the cytoplasm. They were detected immunohistochemically with an antibody against cytokeratin 7 and visualised with a brownish stain. A megakaryocyte (->) has a size similar to the tumour cells, but is not labelled by this staining procedure.</p>
Bone marrow histology of a patient with sarcoidosis
<p>Bone marrow histology (Giemsa stain) of a patient with sarcoidosis. This is a systemic disease of the connective tissue with granuloma formation and of unknown cause. However, a mutation in the BTNL2 gene greatly increases the risk of developing sarcoidosis. The granuloma consists of so-called 'epitheloid' cells, which derive from macrophages, and Langhans giant cells (not to be confused with Langerhans cells).</p>
Bone marrow histology of a patient with severe aplastic anaemia
<p>Bone marrow histology (Giemsa stain) of a patient with severe aplastic anaemia, showing an extremely reduced cell content: Almost only fat cells and a few erythropoietic precursor cells are visible.</p>
Bone marrow histology showing altered bone marrow architecture and pronounced dysplasia
<p>Bone marrow histology (Giemsa stain) of a patient showing altered bone marrow architecture and pronounced dysplasia (for example, the erythroblasts are too large and erythropoiesis cannot be clearly separated from granulopoiesis). The percentage of blast cells is between 10 and 20%. Diagnosis is RAEB-2. (Often the percentage of blast cells can be better determined in bone marrow cytology.)</p>
Bone marrow histology showing blasts
<p>Bone marrow histology (Gomori stain) of a patient with AML showing blasts inducing an increased production of fibres (->), which are coloured black in this stain. Due to the high concentration of fibres the bone marrow could not be aspirated, making a bone marrow biopsy necessary. </p>
Bone marrow histology showing prefibrotic stage of PMF
<p>Bone marrow histology (Giemsa stain) showing the prefibrotic stage of PMF (also called CIMF). Capillaries and fibroblasts have a stringy appearance (lower part of the picture). In the upper third the haematopoietic tissue still looks normal. The highlighted megakaryocyte (->) is atypical. </p>
Bone marrow histology with an increased number of megakaryocytes
<p>The bone marrow histology of this patient (Giemsa stain) shows significantly elevated ('hyperplastic') erythropoiesis and an increased number of megakaryocytes, which appear atypical. Diagnosis here is PV.</p>
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